Main Article Content
This paper presents a method for determining the electricity demands under condition of the use of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in the transport sector according to the assumption that traditional internal combustion vehicles (ICVs) will be replaced by BEVs. The rate of oil used by the land transport sector at present, including the energy efficiency of ICVs and BEVs, were considered under the principle of energy conservation. The growth rate of energy consumption was estimated from rate of past fuel consumption. The trend in the ordinary electricity demand was calculated from previously recorded data using a linear regression method. The electricity demand by the land transport sector and the rate of growth were merged with the ordinary electricity demand via logistic regression. This method was applied to the transport sector in Thailand, assuming BEVs would constitute 30% of land transport. The results revealed the amount of electricity that should be prepared for rising up of BEVs in transport world, and BEVs will cause a perceptible change in the previous trend of overall electricity demand.
Automotive Energy Supply Corporation (AESC). (2013). Cell Module and Pack for EV application. [Online URL: https://www.eco-aesc-lb.com/en/product/liion_ev/] accessed on December 10, 2013.
Burress, T. (2013). Benchmarking State of the Art Technologies. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. (2013). U.S. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting. Project ID: APE006. Managed by Department of Energy, US Government., pp. 11, [Online URL: https://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/ 2014/03/f13/ape006_burress_2013_o.pdf] accessed on January 22, 2015.
Department of Energy (DOE). (2015). Lower and Higher Heating Values of Hydrogen and other Fuels, Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. government. [Online URL:https:// hydrogen.pnl.gov/tools/lower-and-higher-heating-values-fuels] accessed on February 16, 2015.
Eckerle, W. (2011). Overview of High-Efficiency Engine Technologies. Presented at Direction in engine-efficiency and emissions Research conference, Detroit, Oct 3, 2011. [Online URL: https://energy.gov/eere/vehicles/downloads/overview-high-efficiency-engine-technologies] accessed on December 10, 2012.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2016a). Where the energy goes: Gasoline vehicle. U.S. government. [Online URL: https://www.fuelecono my.gov/feg/atv.shtml] accessed on February 28, 2016.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2016b). How vehicles are tasted. U.S. government. [Online URL: https://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/ how_tested.shtml] accessed on February 28, 2016.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2016c). Shared MPG Estimates. U.S. government. [Online URL:https://www.fueleconomy.gov/MPG/MPG.do?action=browseList] accessed on January 7, 2016.
Energy Policy and Planning Office (EPPO). (2010). Thailand’s energy situation in 2010 and trend in 2011. Ministry of Energy, Royal Thai government. [Online URL: https://doc-EPPO.EP PO.go.th/Energy Situation/EnerSituation_YF.html] accessed on February 12, 2012.
Energy Policy and Planning Office (EPPO). (2011). Report generation and consumption of electricity in Thailand, Ministry of Energy, Royal Thai government. [Online URL: https://www.eppo.go.th/power/power2554.pdf] accessed on February 1, 2012.
Energy Policy and Planning Office (EPPO). (2014). Retail oil prices, Ministry of Energy, Royal Thai government. [Online URL: https://www.eppo. go.th/retail_prices.html] accessed on February 17, 2014.
Energy Policy and Planning Office (EPPO). (2015). Energy Statistics of Thailand 2015, Ministry of Energy, Royal Thai government. [Online URL: https://www.eppo.go.th/info/cd-2015/index.html] accessed on February 28, 2016.
Higgins, A., Paevere, P., Gardner, J., Quezada, G. (2012). Combining choice modelling and multi-criteria analysis for technology diffusion: an application to the uptake of electric vehicles. Technol. Forecasting Social Change, 79(8), 1399-1412.
International Energy Agency (IEA). (2011). Technology roadmap electric and plug-in hybrid BEVs., Paris, France., 2011. [Online URL: http: //www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/EV_PHEV_Roadmap.pdf] accessed on September 2012.
Khoo, Y. B., Wang, C. H., Paevere, P. and Higgins, A. (2014). Statistical modeling of electric vehicle electricity consumption in the Victorian EV trial, Australia. Transportation Research Part D, 32, 263-277.
Krishna Reddy, A. V., Shiva Shankar, M. and Apparao, K. (2010). Experimental determination of brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption of diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel. International Journal of Engineering and Technology, 2(5), 305-309.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). (2013). LEAF Overview. US government. [Online URL: https://www.nhtsa. gov/pdf/ev/nissan_presentati-bob_yakushi.pptx] accessed on June 28, 2013.
Nissan Motor Sales, USA. (2016). Nissan-Leaf. [Online URL: https://www.nissanusa.com/leaf-electric-vehicle/index] accessed on January 15, 2016.
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). (2010). Facts about vehicles and fuel. Washington, USA. [Online URL: https://www.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/fact/m/2010_fotw629.html] accessed on December 9, 2011.
Pop, V., Bergveld, H. J., Regtien P. P. L., Op het Veld, J. H. G., Danilov, D. and Notten, P. H. L. (2007). Battery aging and its influence on the electromotive force, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 154 (8), A744-A750.
Qian, K., Zhou, C., Allan, M. and Yuan, Y. (2011). Modeling of load demand due to EV battery charging in distribution systems. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 26(2), 802-810.
Van Mierlo, J., Culcu, H., Verbrugge, B., Omar, N. And Van Den Bossche, P. (2009). Internal resistance of cells of lithium battery modules with FreedomVEHICLE model, World Electric Vehicle Journal, 3, 1-9.
Waide, P. and Brunner, C. (2011). Energy-Efficiency Policy Opportunities for Electric Motor-Driven Systems. IEA Energy Papers, No. 2011/07, OECD Publishing, July, 2011. [Online URL: https://www.iea.org/publications/.../EE_for_ElectricSystems.pdf] accessed on March 3, 2012.
Xu, J., Zhang, C. and Liu, Q. (2014). Research on the internal resistance cycle performance of lithium-ion batteries echelon use, Transportation Electrification Asia-Pacific (ITEC Asia-Pacific), 2014 IEEE Conference and Expo, 3, 1-8.
Yang M. J., Jhou, H. L., Ma, B. Y. and Shyu, K. K. (2009). A cost-effective method of electric brake with energy regeneration for BEVs. IEEE Industrial Electronics, 56(6), 2203-2212.
Zou, Y., Hu, X., Ma, H. and Li, S. E. (2015). Combined state of charge and state of health estimation over lithium-ion battery cell cycle lifespan for BEVs. Journal of Power Sources, 273, 793-803.