Thammasat Review 2018-04-05T10:48:23+07:00 Associate Professor Dr. Peter Ractham Open Journal Systems <p>The&nbsp;<em>Thammasat Review, </em>first published in 1996 and started online publicaton in 2014, is a peered-reviewed journal devoted to social sciences and humanities. The purpose of this journal is to provide a forum for academics to present their viewpoints and findings of their research in those fields including politics, economics, law, sociology, anthropology, mass communication, fine and applied arts, etc. The journal is published two volumes per annum (June and December) with support from Thammasat University, however the opinions expressed are those of the authors.</p> <p>Print ISSN: 0859-5747</p> <p>Online ISSN: 2630-0303</p> <p>Language: English</p> <p>Publication Fee: Free</p> Barriers to Bangkok as a Smart Destination with Internet of Things Technology 2018-03-07T15:21:06+07:00 Siriluck Rotchanakitumnuai <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Information and Communication Technology (ICT) offers the opportunity to design smart tourism destinations. A smart destination can integrate a variety of technologies to enrich the tourism experience. The Internet of Things (IoT) is a platform that can synergize ubiquitous sensing technologies and networks with physical components to enhance smart tourism destinations. Although building a smart destination and tourism promotion are major strategic goals of Tourism Authority of Thailand 4.0 (TAT 4.0), Bangkok has not yet developed as a smart destination with new IoT technology to enhance a tourists’ travel experience. This research identifies the barriers to Bangkok as a smart tourism destination by focusing on the readiness to use smart IoT technology and related management issues. There are five major barriers for Bangkok to be a smart destination: 1 the lack of a smart environment, 2 available valuable data, 3 resource competency, 4 privacy and safety, 5 strategic management issues related to policy consistency stability, an effective business model and the engagement of stakeholders. The reduction of these barriers could assist Bangkok to develop a more effective design for a smart destination.</p> 2018-03-07T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Superstitious Behaviors and Perceived Job Performance of Internal Auditing Staffs in Thailand 2018-03-07T15:23:02+07:00 Peerayuth Charoensukmongkol <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; This research explores some traits and job-related characteristics that might be associated with superstitious behaviors. The author also aims to investigate the connection between superstitious behaviors and perceived job performance. The survey data was collected from 141 internal auditing staffs at a leading financial institution in Thailand. Results from partial least square analysis reveal that external locus of control and the lack of opportunity for career advancement are the major factors that strongly predict superstitious behaviors. The analysis also confirms the positive contribution of superstitious behaviors on perceived job performance. Furthermore, the role of superstitious behaviors on perceived job performance is strongly moderated by an external locus of control, a lack of opportunity for career advancement, and inadequate experience in the auditing job. Overall, these findings provide important evidence regarding some conditions that might explain why individuals embrace superstitious behaviors and what conditions could cause the individuals to benefit from such behaviors.</p> 2018-03-07T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Complex Conditions and Factors Determining The Success of Community Land Deeds: A Case Study of Mae Aow Village, Pasang District, Lamphun Province 2018-03-07T15:24:08+07:00 Pongsatorn Khamjainuk <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Thailand has been facing problems of landlessness, scarcity of land and enclosure of land in forest areas. This has created further problems such as land use conflicts, poverty among smallholder farmers and landless farmers, and ecological degradation. There have been several measures from the government to reallocate some parts of the already destroyed forest to poor villagers, through SPK 4-01. However, farmers still are unable to make decent production and some of them have sold their rights of Land use to outsiders. The most recent measure was the Community Land Title Deed that seemed to be promising and was expected to improve the SPK 4-01 scheme. However, there was skeptical to the effectiveness of this Community Land Deed, and so Mae Aow village was selected as one of the pilot sites to analyze the effectiveness.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; This research discovered that the legal aspects of the Community Land Deed were not sufficient. Rather, they needed to have three principles in balance: ecology, equity and sustainable production. The principles must be met as a prerequisite, and then the community would be capable of managing the land and allocating it to the right people accordingly. This research also revealed that land allocation could not guarantee that SPK 4-01 would improve. Judging from the three principles and community management, (1) the ecological aspect was not suitable (2) equity of land allocation was in favor of the rich, and, (3) plots of land were not productive or sustainable. In addition, there would be expectations that this Community Land Deed, for the case study, was more or less similar to SPK 4-01.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Therefore, this research conceptually suggests that the three principles and community management must be further researched, and in practice, the government needs to reconsider the Community Land Deed before launching the program nationwide.</p> 2018-03-07T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Construct of a Cross-Border Community in-between the Thailand and Myanmar’s Border Space through Cross-Border Movements of Ethnic Traders 2018-04-05T10:48:23+07:00 Yuthpong Chantrawarin <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; This paper investigated the making of a cross-border community Myanmar’s ethnic traders between the Thailand-Myanmar bordey exploring the interconnection of their cross-border mobility, network and illegal/illicit components of commodities. The border towns of Mae Sai, Thailand’s northernmost town, and Tachilek, Myanmar’s eastern town, witnessed dynamic transformation under regional development. The border trade and tourism booms drew Myanmar’s ethnics from Myanmar hinterland to Tachilek, before then crossing the borders to Mae Sai in quest of economic well-being. Having had experienced high levels of business competition in Tachilek, these migrant traders, made up of the Burmese, Shan, Burmese Chinese and Burmese Muslim, crossed the borders to sell pirated CD/DVDs, smuggled brand-name cigarettes and Viagra to tourists in Mae Sai. This paper argued that the ethnic traders’ border tactics—those derived from the everyday cross-border mobility taken place between Mae Sai-Tachilek, and based on manipulation of the states’ regulatory cross-border loopholes—contributed to the creation of a cross-border community. The community—embedded in, and demonstrated through, daily spatial and socio-economic interrelation between the two borders—was a hybridized, divisive, yet integrative border space. Their community in-between the borders helped them create new opportunities and new profits. The in-between state borders were re-defined, re-functioned and given a new meaning in their own&nbsp;right.&nbsp;This paper was qualitative research and its research tools included research papers, observation and in-depth interviews.</p> 2018-03-07T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Multiculturalism and Its Impacts in the Deep South of Thailand: A Case Study of the Christian Community in Pattani 2018-03-07T15:25:28+07:00 Sansanee Chanarnupap Teeraporn Tongkachok <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; This paper is based on a qualitative study of the Christian community in Pattani focusing on the impact of multicultural policies on them. The research methodology comprises of documentary and field research. Forty key informants generate the core data for the study. The research found that since the violent situation in 2004, the awareness of cultural diversity in the deep south of Thailand has been increasing significant. Although southern violence has occurred due to several factors, it is argued that the main driver of the Pattani insurgency is the loss of identity of the local people. Nowadays, there is a global awareness of cultural differences, mutual respect, and acceptance to subordinate groups, and all are considered foundations for peace in the world. Accordingly, the bureaucratic policy applied to this area has brought about change. This has led to a major cultural shift away from policies of ‘assimilation’ to the introduction of ‘multiculturalism’. This has created a public space for subordinate groups such as the Christian community and made them more visible in Pattani civil society. In the age of globalization, cultural diversity is regarded as unsurprising and commonplace. The question is no longer whether this is good or bad. Rather, the challenge is to seek social integration. The researcher scrutinizes that social integration means not simply mutual respect and tolerance between different groups but continual interaction, engagement and civic participation. Accordingly, in the politics of social integration, it is debatable that calling for improving opportunity and greater interaction between people of different backgrounds as a peaceful strategy in the deep south of Thailand would lead us towards a society where cultural diversity does not determine our destiny.</p> 2018-03-07T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Love, Anger and Hate of the Red Shirts: The Contestation of Meanings of Politics and Justice 2018-03-07T15:26:01+07:00 Thannapat Jarenpanit <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; This article focuses on the cultural emotions of the red shirt supporters after the contexts of military coup in 2006. The patterns of emotions seen within the red shirt groups can help reveal their internal differences, and also the divisions and conflicts that exist there in. I will examine this issue by focusing on an analysis of the affective emotions of love (a positive emotion), anger and hate (negative emotions) displayed by the red shirt groups from Chiang Mai and Bangkok. These emotions can reflect the contestation of meanings of politics, democracy and justice among the social sub-groups and individuals who joined the red shirt protests during the last decade of Thailand’s political conflicts. This situation, containing different cultural emotions and political meanings, has led to a deeply divided Thai population in terms of the country’s politics and society. To understand the diversity of social characteristics and actions that exist within the red shirt groups, one cannot see emotions as static; as emotions vary in terms of their meanings, levels and dynamics, based on the contexts and cultures within which they are experienced.</p> 2018-03-07T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##