Thammasat Review <p>The&nbsp;<em>Thammasat Review, </em>first published in 1996 and started online publication in 2014, is a peer-reviewed journal devoted to social sciences and humanities. The purpose of this journal is to provide a forum for academics to present their viewpoints and findings of their research in those fields including politics, economics, law, sociology, anthropology, mass communication, fine and applied arts, etc. The journal is published two volumes per annum (June and December) with support from Thammasat University, however the opinions expressed are those of the authors.</p> <p>Print ISSN: 0859-5747</p> <p>Online ISSN: 2630-0303</p> <p>Language: English</p> <p>Publication Fee: Free</p> en-US <p>เนื้อหาและข้อมูลในบทความที่ลงตีพิมพ์ในวารสาร Thammasat Review ถือเป็นข้อคิดเห็นและความรับผิดชอบของผู้เขียนบทความโดยตรง ซึ่งกองบรรณาธิการวารสารไม่จำเป็นต้องเห็นด้วย หรือร่วมรับผิดชอบใดๆ</p> <p>บทความ ข้อมูล เนื้อหา รูปภาพ ฯลฯ ที่ได้รับการตีพิมพ์ในวารสาร Thammasat Review ถือเป็นลิขสิทธิ์ของวารสาร Thammasat Review หากบุคคลหรือหน่วยงานใดต้องการนำทั้งหมดหรือส่วนหนึ่งส่วนใดไปเผยแพร่ต่อเพื่อกระทำการใดๆ จะต้องได้รับอนุญาตเป็นลายลักษณ์อักษรจากวารสาร Thammasat Review ก่อนเท่านั้น</p> (Associate Professor Dr. Peter Ractham) (Ms. Piyaporn Naruphai) Thu, 20 Dec 2018 15:11:15 +0700 OJS 60 Christianity, Ancestor Worship, and Cultural Revitalization among Akha Communities in the Upper Mekong Region <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Leo Alting von Geusau defines Akha ritual practices as a form of ancestor worship, arguing that the Akha ancestor system has been traditionally the backbone of the Akha world. Anthropologists have extensively investigated ancestorhood within various contexts, many of which have characterized ancestor worship as a source of authority, morality, and kinship. Economic changes, as well as the establishment of the first Christian missions among the Akha, have gradually marginalized ancestor worship among the Akha, with the knowledge and authority held by the ancestors increasingly declining.<br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; However, a number of associations have emerged over the past two decades to work on behalf of Akha culture, and these movements have promoted the reconsideration of the role of ancestors. Some key representatives of these Akha associations during this period have moved around the borders of upper Southeast Asia and China, interacting with the wider, transnational Akha community. This paper introduces and describes the work of numerous associations that currently revitalize Akha culture and highlights the different meanings that the group attaches to Akha ancestors. The aim of this paper is to describe the rationale behind these associations’ attempt to restore ancestor worship. In addition to examining why ancestor worship occurs, this paper tackles the issue of “how” by referring to the practical manner by which a new centrality is being constructed for the Akha ancestors. Fieldwork confirms that on the one hand, Akha ancestors’ revitalization seeks to create a new transnational Akha identity; on the other hand, such process questions the categories of culture and religion in relation to both traditional belief systems and Christianity.</p> Anita Agostini ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0700 Day-Seasonal Efficiency of the Stock Exchange of Thailand <p>Market efficiency evolves with changing market conditions. Moreover, if the conditions are weekday dependent, the efficiency can be day-seasonal. In this study, I test for the day-seasonal efficiency of the Thai stock market and examine how it behaves over time. Using the daily returns on the Stock Exchange of Thailand index portfolio from April 30, 1975, to December 29, 2017, I find that the day-seasonal efficiency exists. However, it disappears as the efficiency of the market improves. The day-seasonal efficiency is empirically explained by the positive feedback strategies. The market has a delayed response to the information from foreign investors’ trading volume.</p> Anya Khanthavit ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0700 Framing Climate Change: A Comparative Analysis of Thailand’s Press Coverage on COP 21 Paris Agreement <p>This study used content and textual analysis of four newspapers – the Bangkok Post, the Nation, Matichon and Thai Rath – during November 30, 2015 until February 28, 2017 to examine how they framed the climate change debate during the COP 21 Paris agreement. The content analysis produced five dominant frames, namely, responsibility, morality and ethics, sufficiency economy, ASEAN haze free and public health and public participation. Through these frames, the textual analysis portrayed how a number of internal and external factors influenced the frame-building process of climate change issues at the COP 21 Paris agreement in which all 194 countries agreed to keep the rise in global temperature by the year 2100 well below 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 Fahrenheit).</p> Boonlert Supadhiloke ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0700 The Thai Medical Tourism Supply Chain: Its Stakeholders, Their Collaboration and Information Exchange <p>Medical tourism makes a significant contribution to many countries’economies, including that of Thailand. Theoretically, to increase competitiveness of the whole industry, efficient management of the supply chain is key. Therefore, this study investigates the Thai medical tourism supply chain; it attempts to understand who the key stakeholders are, how they collaborate, and how data and information flow along the supply chain. In-depth interviews were conducted with 54 stakeholders in the industry, including medical service providers, hotels, travel agents, and other collaborating institutions, to gain thorough understanding and insights into the industry. By providing a clearer picture of the Thai medical tourism supply chain, this study points out a lack of collaboration and integration among the stakeholders in this sector and an inactive role of travel agencies in aggregating information from all stakeholders and linking medical service providers with tourism service providers. There is also a need for a long-term policy and macro-level support from the government. In addition, by looking at the information flow along the medical tourism supply chain, this study reveals limited data exchange among the stakeholders in this chain. This is a result of minimal collaboration among them, as noted above.</p> Laddawan Kaewkitipong ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0700 Limitations of the Myanmar Government in Reforming Copyright Law to Meet Local Author’s Concerns and the Standard of Article 15 (c) of ICESCR <p>The government of Myanmar has been re-drafting its copyright law since 2004. It has been doing so for three reasons: to fulfill the required obligations of the TRIPs Agreement of 1994 and the ASEAN Framework Agreement on Intellectual Property Cooperation of 1996, to prevent persistent copyright infringement issues in Myanmar, and to attract foreign direct investment in the creative industry. At the time of this writing a new Copyright Bill is ready to be discussed in Parliament. However, according to a study on the bill and its drafts (Aung, 2017), it will not meet the essential needs of local authors in Myanmar. Thus, this paper will outline the problems of the government in protecting the local authors’moral and material interests. This study uses a qualitative research design. Documentary research and key informant interviews with twenty-four participants were the methods of data gathering. The paper argues that the government’s inability to address local authors’concerns in the revision of the Copyright Bill is due to faulty policy formulation due to the lack of awareness of the subject area among the officials themselves, lack of clear understanding of the issues to be solved, lack of democratic values restricting the participation of affected groups, and insufficient cooperation between related government institutions.</p> May Thida Aung ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0700 Co-management Concept: Practical Variation in Ob Luang National Park <p>This article aims to study and analyze success and failure of co-management application and action in Ob Luang National Park and analyze the factors contributing to the partial failure or variation of co-management from central and regional agencies. The paper used the qualitative research method to collect the data from meeting reports, annual reports, and in-depth interviews of all stakeholders as communities leader groups, National Park officers and NGOs about the concept and thinking systems, management mechanisms, processes and tools. It analyzed using the co-management concept to indicate the success and failure as the variability. The results found that the case study succeeded in the alignment of land demarcation boundary between the conservation and arable areas are acceptable. The success is due to mostly the concept and practice approach, materials, and good relationships with local stakeholders, and a small part from central, regional and provincial supporters. The failures exemplified by lack of legal or semi-legal recognition of land demarcation, insufficient implementation of participatory forest protection at the areas, and lack of supports on promoting sustainable production at the areas designated as arable land use. Therefore, it found that because of the bureaucratic system, the concept and practice are not clear, as well as less support from the central and regional agencies, and respectively as well as the relationship of stakeholders. Moreover, co-management may be logically sound for management in the national park, but it does not take the factors for the variation as significant components that reduce the effectiveness of the concept.</p> Nittaya Wongweerapant ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0700 Impact of Digital Media Usage on Human Happiness and Well Being - An Analysis of Rural Comunities in Thailand <p>The distribution of digital media seems to impact on daily communication media usage and invest a lot of money on digital living. This study aims to examine the effects of digital culture and digital media on the happiness and well-being of rural people (n=387, α=0.05) in the Koakha and Thagham sub districts in Lampang and Singhburi provinces.The results found that the majority samples perceived the highest score (<img title="\bar{x}" src="\bar{x}"> = 4.01, s.d.=0.9) on analogue television and personal communication which influences six factors; 1)health and mind dimension; 2)job security dimension; 3)economic security dimension; 4) community and family relationships; 5) administrative management dimension; 6) community environment and climate dimension together where they are entwined and cannot be easily separated. Investing in modern media tools and systems (social networks, mobile devices, digital television), should be embraced, though they should be treated with caution. It is also crucial to account for any unintended effects, such as unfiltered or unverified information. The paper further questions the role of local government, and their role in promoting local identity, social policy and how digitisation could assist in serving those living outside of major cities in Thailand.</p> Panida Jongsuksomsakul ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0700 Book review: “Moral Tribes: Emotion, Reason, and the Gap Between Us and Them” <p>Combining psychological experiments with philosophical debates, Joshua Greene, the author of Moral Tribes, proposes metamorality to overcome modern day’s conflicts escalating from the gap between us and them. Greene argues that humans are naturally tribalistic, as evidenced by our two modes of brain: the automatic mode and the manual mode. The automatic mode controls common sense while the manual mode controls deliberation. However, by nature humans use the automatic mode far more often, influencing people to draw the line between tribes, automatically making us and them. To overcome this problem arising from the automatic mode, Greene proposes that people need metamorality which is grounded on manual mode thinking. His proposal is utilitarianism. Greene argues that moral schools such as Kantian and Rawlsian are grounded on the automatic mode, and they are not useful for solving tribalism. In Greene’s view, unlike Kantian and Rawlsian, utilitarianism is grounded on the manual mode, as utilitarianism involves cost-benefit analysis and deliberation. Utilitarianism does not adhere to certain rules but focuses on what ultimately works best. Greene believes that such philosophical thinking may create rooms where tribes can discuss and reach common agreement. Nevertheless, Greene’s proposal is still questionable, as utilitarianism is widely criticised that it might justify violence, and excessively hypothetical. Most of all, Greene’s support for utilitarianism can also be considered as tribalistic and biased. Altogether, Moral Tribes may be thought-provoking and fun to read, but its proposal is not yet satisfactory.</p> Pasit Wongngamdee ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0700 Understanding Competitive Advantage of Organic Agriculture through the Natural-Resource-Based View: Case Studies of Three Organic Rice Producer Networks <p>This study is aimed at exploring the link between organic agriculture and competitive advantage in Thailand. A qualitative study, involving focus groups and in-depth interviews, is undertaken to understand the various points of view surrounding the production of organic rice, as this is the main organic agricultural product in Thailand. The natural-resource-based view (NRBV) is applied as the theoretical lens to study this relationship. The findings explain the practices of organic agriculture with three organic rice producer networks in Surin, Amnat Charoen, and Yasothon, in terms of pollution prevention, product stewardship, and sustainable development. The results reveal that Thai farmers in organic rice agriculture gain competitive advantage in various respects. In particular, the results of this study provide evidence that these farmers are aware of the benefits of organic agriculture. Moreover, the findings indicate that the Thai government should motivate other farmers to move from conventional agriculture to organic farming more widely, thereby also achieving competitive advantage.</p> Pittawat Ueasangkomsate, Kamonchanok Suthiwartnarueput, Ravipim Chaveesuk ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0700 Dispute Mediation Abroad: An Alternative Conflict Resolution <p>This article aims to study the patterns or methods of dispute mediation abroad leading to an introduction of a dispute mediation model in Thailand. The literature review has been used to reflect patterns and processes of mediation in other countries which may serve as an example of mediating disputes in Thailand. A review of relevant literature shows that mediation has been a popular approach chosen to settle conflicts in many countries around the world. The key to mediating disputes is to empower people to resolve conflicts themselves. The dominant feature of this alternative conflict resolution is that it is more cost and time efficient than court proceedings. A crucial factor to a successful mediation is the mediator, the person responsible for facilitating negotiation between the disputed parties. It is found that the efficiency of operating mediation has contributed to a huge reduction of cases going into court each year. Moreover, mediation is also a form of conflict resolutions that has helped to maintain the relationship between disputants.</p> Saranya Tarat, Teera Sindecharak ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0700 The Body, Merit-Making and Ancestor Worship: Mask Festivals in Thailand and Laos <p>Merit-making is a very important part of life for the people living along the Thai-Lao border. People make merit to pray for good luck and keep misfortune away. They do this at mask festivals, such as the Phi Ta Khon Festival in Thailand and the Pu Nyeu Nya Nyeu Festival in Laos. These two mask festivals not only have a cultural connection, but also represent local narratives through mask performances in order to achieve the religious purpose of worshipping local gods or spirits, also known as merit-making. People believe that if they make merit to local spirits and ghosts, their lives will go smoothly and be bountiful. This study uses field work to understand how people use their bodies as a medium to connect to the merit-making concept at mask festivals. The results show the following: the locals of Dansai and Luang Prabang join mask festivals to create a relationship between their bodies and merit-making through mask-making or cosplay. Also, it is found that merit-making is closely related to people’s everyday lives in Thailand and Laos.</p> Ya-Liang Chang ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0700 Armed Conflicts between the Kachin Independence Organization and Myanmar Army: A Conflict Analysis <p>The paper examines the armed conflicts between the Kachin Independence Organization (KIO) and Burmese army since 1961 after ten years of Burma/Myanmar independence from the British rule in 1948. With the aspect of political justifications, the paper positions from the Kachins’ perspective to analyze the armed conflicts between KIO and the Burmese army in terms of political injustice. The armed conflicts are conceptually approached with the theory of what the Galtung (1996) has termed as ‘Conflict Triangle’, in which the attitude and contradiction that have become the formation and catalysts towards the armed conflicts as behavior. Therefore, the paper identifies the ways in which the Burmese supremacy and dictatorship that escalated the armed conflicts between KIO and Burmese army as the root cause. The research applied a case study approach to analyze the armed conflicts between the KIO and Burmese army, in which the armed conflicts have been scrutinized with ‘Cultural, Structural and Direct Violence’ (Gultung, 1996) and the theoretical frame of negative peace. The study mainly relied on relevant secondary data for analysis. Historically, a wide range of cultural differences including language and religion between the Kachin and majority Burmese have yielded divergently ingrained attitudes of the two societies since the Burmese supremacy escalated the acrimonious attitude of the Kachin as an existential threat. As a result, the inequality in political participation for the decision-making power vested in the state constitutions. Consequently, such political discrimination has become one of the biggest contradictions enshrined as structural violence to move forwards the armed conflicts as direct violence. Furthermore, with the theoretical lens of negative peace; this paper explores how the KIO attempted peace negotiations with different central regimes for political resettlement. The paper attempts to pinpoint the root cause of the armed conflicts using theoretical framework and work towards a sensible solution that would be helpful for both the academia and stakeholders of the armed conflicts.</p> Yaw Htung ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0700