Gamete Alteration of the Long-Spined Sea Urchin Diadema setosum (Leske, 1778) from Sichang Island, Chonburi Province, Thailand: A Preliminary Study

Main Article Content

ศิลปชัย เสนารัตน์ สุชารัตน์ สุขใส ทัตพล กำเนิดนิล เจษฏ์ เกษตระทัต ละม้าย ทองบุญ วรรณีย์ จิรอังกูรสกุล ชำนาญ ภารา พิสิษฐ์ พูลประเสริฐ ธีรกมล เพ็งสกุล


In this study, we selected the long-spined sea urchin, Diadema setosum, as sentinel species to investigate its gamete alteration to predict its reproductive health, from Sichang island, Chonburi province, Thailand. Ten adult samples including five male and five females were collected from February to May 2017. Redial measurement, gonadosomatic index (GSI) and collection of the testes and ovaries to observe the type and changes of the gametogenesis based on standard histological technique. The results revealed that redial measurement of the male D. setosum was 7.36±0.34 cm. and 7.36±0.78 cm. in the female D. setosum. The GSI of the male and female D. setosum were 9.85±4.6 and 10.70±4.16, respectively. Also, the gonadal development of both sexes was considered to be a growing stage. Several germ cells including spermatocyte, spermatid and spermatozoon in male D. setosum were observed, whereas previtellogenic stage was only occurred in female D. setosum. Interestingly, histopathological alteration was only found in the ovarian tissue of female D. setosum, especially in the appearance of the atretic pre-vitellogenic stage. From this preliminary study, it appeared that female D. setosum was in a potential risk to a reduction in oocytes, probably leading to a decline in the ovarian health. The influential factors in the fertility of female sea urchin Diadema setosum will be examined in further studies. 


Article Details

Research Article


1. Alsaffar, A.H. & Lone, K.P. (2000). Reproductive cycles of Diadema setosum and Echinometra mathaei (Echinoidea: Echinodermata) from Kuwait (Northern Arabian Gulf). Bulletin of Marine Science, 67, 845-856.

2. Blazer, V.S. (2002). Histopathological assessment of gonadal tissue in wild fishes. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 26, 85–101.

3. Bronstein, O., Kroh, A. & Loya, Y. (2016). Reproduction of the long-spined sea urchin Diadema setosum in the Gulf of Aqaba - implications for the use of gonad-indexes. Scientific Reports, 6, 29569.

4. Byrne, M. (1990). Annual reproductive cycles of the commercial sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus from an exposed intertidal and a sheltered sub-tidal habitat on the west coast of Ireland. Marine Biology, 104, 275–289.

5. Drummond, A. E. (2011). Reproduction of the sea urchin Stomopneustes variolaris (Lam.) on the east coast of South Africa. Invertebrate Reproduction & Development, 20, 259–266.

6. Drummond, A. E. (1995). Reproduction of the sea urchins Echinometra mathaei and Diadema savignyi on the South African Eastern Coast. Marine and Freshwater Research, 46, 751–755.

7. Frame, L., & Dickerson, R.L. (2006). Fish and wildlife as sentinels of environment contamination. In D.O. Norris and J.A. Carr (eds.), Endocrine disruption: biological bases for health effects in wildlife and humans, pp. 202-222. New York: Oxford University Press.

8. Lowe, V.L. & Pipe, R.K. (1986). Hydrocarbon exposure in mussels: a quantitative study of the responses in the reproductive and nutrient storage cell systems. Aquatic Toxicology, 20(3), 259-265.

9. National Research Council (NRC). (1991). Animals as sentinel of environmental health hazards. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press.

10. Meidel, S. K. & Scheibling, R.E. (1998). Annual reproductive cycle of the green sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, in differing habitats in Nova Scotia, Canada. Marine Biology, 131, 461-478.

11. Naidenko, T. (1997). Abnormality of development in Strongylocentus intermedius (A. Agassiz) Larvae from polluted habitat in Amursky Bay, Peter the Great Bay. The Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 38, 1-11.

12. Presnell, J. K. and Schreibman, M. P. (1997). Humason’s Animal Tissue Techniques. (5th ed.). USA: Johns Hopkins University Press.

13. Quddus Khan, M. A., Al-Ghais, S. M., Catalin, B. & Khan, Y. H. (2005). Effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on aquatic animals. In Oil Pollution and its Environmental Impact in the Arabian Gulf Region. M. Al-Azab, W. El-Shorbagy and S. Al-Ghais, (editors), pp. 159–185, Elsevier B. V.

14. Senarat, S., Poolprasert, P. & Yenchum, W. (2013). Histological changes of gonadal tissues in Red-tailed Tinfoil, Barbonymus altus from Tapee River, Nakhon Sri Thammarat Province. Journal of Science & Technology of Ubonratchathane University, 15, 10-20. (Abstract in English)

15. Schäfer, S. and Köhler, A. (2009). Gonadal lesions of female sea urchin (Psammechinus miliaris) after exposure to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene. Marine Environmental Research, 68, 128-136.

16. Schäfer, S., Abele, D., Weihe, E. & Köhler, A. (2011). Sex-specific biochemical and histological differences in gonads of sea urchins (Psammechinus miliaris) and their response to phenanthrene exposure. Marine Environmental Research, 71, 70-78.

17. Suvarna, K.S., Layton, C. & Bancroft, J.D. (2013). Bancroft’s Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. (7th ed.) Canada: Elsevier.

18. USEPA. (1996). Drinking water regulation and health advisories, USEPA Office of Water, Washinton, DC.
Wattanayakorn, G. and Rungsupa, S. (2012). Petroleum hydrocarbon residues in the marine environment of Koh Sichang-Sriracha, Thailand. Coastal Marine Science, 35, 122-128.

19. Wilson, J. M., Bunte, R. M., Carty, A. J. (2009). Evaluation of rapid cooling and tricaine methanesulfonate (MS 222) as methods of euthanasia in zebra fish (Danio rerio). Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, 48, 785-789.

Most read articles by the same author(s)