Publication Ethics

The Pacific Rim International Journal of Nursing Research (PRIJNR) is owned by the Thailand Nursing and Midwifery Council and managed by the Editors of the Journal. The Journal is published four times a year on a 3 monthly basis both online and in hard copy (January, April, July, and October). All articles/issues are digitally preserved in online archiving as well as through backup copies in the Editorial Office. This Journal adheres to the Code of Conduct for Journal Editors (2008) of the COPE Committee and works to ensure the highest possible ethical standards of publication practice. Our statement here closely draws upon wording of this Code. The full Code can be found at:


The Editors of PRIJNR strive to:

1. Maintain the highest possible standards of practice in publishing to meet the needs of authors and readers, maintain confidentiality of a submitted manuscript, improve the quality of material, champion freedom of expression, maintain the integrity of the academic record, avoid business interests compromising intellectual standards, and are willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies where relevant;

2. Ensure that all manuscripts are peer reviewed by at least two expert reviewers;

3. Give timely and comprehensive feedback to authors.

4. Evaluate all manuscripts for their intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors;

5. Make firm decisions about what articles are accepted for publication, according to the policies of the journal, legal requirements regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism, and take into account feedback from other editors and expert reviewers;

6. Be fair to authors and provide chances for appeal against their decisions; and

7. Pursue misconduct for the following reasons in published and unpublished work: plagiarism of other works, data fabrication and falsification, when a submitted manuscript has been found to be under revision elsewhere or published elsewhere,or where there is citation manipulation. Dependent on the level or depth of misconduct in each case, measures to deal with such conduct may include rejection of a manuscript, retraction of an article online together with a statement regarding the retraction, or notification of misconduct to the author(s) employers. At all times authors involved in such misconduct will be given reasons in writing regarding this and be given the opportunity to appeal. The Editors of PRIJNR are supported by an Editorial Board of international experts in nursing and health who contribute ideas about the journal and review content on a regular basis. A full list of the Editorial Board can be found on the Journal’s homepage.


Author Responsibilities

Editors of PRIJNR expect authors to maintain high standards of ethical publishing and provide full and correct details of:

1. Disclosure of financial support for the study or paper, and potential or actual conflicts of interest;

2. Ethical approval of their study by a specific ethics committee and the number of that approval;

3. The results of their study;

4. Description of how they protected the rights of the study participants, including confidentiality;

5. Fully reference all citations of other authors’ work, including their own;

6. Provide raw data if this is required when a manuscript is under review.

7. Ensure that they submit only original work with sufficient detail and references to enable replication of the study by others;

8. Follow the guidelines for submission on the Journal.

9. Alert the Editors to any significant error or accuracy in their work so as to correct or retract the paper;

10. Never submit their manuscript to multiple journals at the same time;

11. Make clear statements regarding any funding bodies for their studies/articles and describe any actual or potential conflict of interest to the Editor on submission of a manuscript.

12. Provide co-authorship only to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study, or in other cases to the writing of the manuscript, dependent on the type of manuscript. The corresponding author should ensure that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the manuscript and its submission to the Journal. A statement regarding the responsibilities of each co-author in relation to the manuscript or study must be provided on submission.

13. Contribute to the review processes of articles for the Journal.

14. Be aware that they have the right to appeal an Editor’s decision about their manuscript by emailing the editorial office (; with a detailed explanation as to why they are appealing. The team of Editors will ensure that all appeals are dealt with fairly.

15. Be aware that steps will be taken to deal with author misconduct for issues such as plagiarism or research unethical behaviour. In such cases authors need to be aware that they may be responsible for any costs involved in retraction of their article or correction of mistakes in print.


Reviewers of PRIJNR are expected to:

1. Provide prompt, timely feedback to the Editors on manuscripts;

2. Maintain confidentiality of all documents in the review process;

3. Alert the Editors of any reason or possible or actual conflict of interest in relation to a manuscript or its authors, or knowledge of a study or project, and withdraw from the process;

4. Advise the Editors of possible plagiarism where authors have not cited work correctly or duplicated work in publications, including their own, or in unpublished data;

5. Give timely, feedback to authors which does not personally criticise them and provides clear supportive statements to back up their review decisions; and

6. Alert the Editors when presented with a manuscript for which they do not have the expertise to review.


Publication costs: The cost is 10,000 Thai baht (295 USD) per accepted manuscript. This cost will be requested after the manuscript is accepted. In addition, peer review will not be influenced by payment.


Plagiarism and inappropriate referencing:

PRIJNR takes plagiarism seriously. The copying of other authors’ work without appropriate referencing will not be tolerated. Word strings of 6- 7 words quoted directly from the literature or other sources must be referenced, placed in inverted commas and the page number given. Paraphrasing of cited literature is preferred over direct quotations. On manuscript submission, before peer review, all manuscripts are subjected to the anti-plagiarism software ‘Turnitin’. This is supported by Mahidol University to detect unreferenced, non- original material and other issues with referencing. A second check after complete revision, and before acceptance, is given to all manuscripts. If the percentage of similarity with other literature is over 30, the Editor-in-Chief will contact the corresponding author for explanation, and the manuscript will be rejected if the explanation is unsatisfactory. If the similarity percentage is less than 30, the Editor-in-Chief will inform the corresponding author and provide advice to revise and resubmit the manuscript. If plagiarism is proven after publication, the article will be retracted. Relevant leaders in all the employing institutions of the authors will then be contacted to inform them of the retraction and provide advice about expected future behaviors of employees regarding ethical publishing. Any retraction will be officially announced as early as possible in both a hard copy of the Journal and in an online issue.