Effects of Moringa oleifera on the Acetylcholinesterase and Monoamine Oxidase Activities in the Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Brains

  • Napatr Sriraksa Division of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Phayao
Keywords: acetylcholinesterase, diabetes mellitus, monoamine oxidase, Moringa oleifera


Cognitive decline in diabetes is related to hyperglycemia-induced cerebral metabolism of neurotransmitters that play a role in cognitive function. This study aimed to determine the effect of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) leaf extract on the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) in diabetic rat brains with a sciatic nerve constriction. Type-I diabetes was induced in young adult male Wistar rats (180-220 g) with a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 65 mg/kg BW (i.p.). The diabetic rats were further subjected to a right sciatic nerve constriction. Then, rats were randomly assigned to three different doses of orally administered M. oleifera leaf extract (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg BW) for 21 days. The cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and striatum were collected to determine the activities of AChE and MAO. The results showed that M. oleifera leaf extract significantly decreased the activity of AChE and MAO in the studied brain regions.


1. Gupta G, Azam M, Baquer NZ. Effect of experimental diabetes on the catecholamine metabolism in rat brain. J Neurochem. 1992;58:95–100.
2. Zhang Z, Yan J, Shi H. Hyperglycemia as a risk factor of ischemic stroke. J Drug Metab Toxicol. 2013;4(4):153.
3. Stafstrom CE. Hyperglycemia lowers seizure threshold. Epilepsy Curr. 2003;3(4):148–9.
4. Kodl CT, Seaquist ER. Cognitive dysfunction and diabetes mellitus. Endocr Rev. 2008;29(4):494–511.
5. Popovic M, Biessels GJ, Isaacson RL, Gispen WH. Learning and memory in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats in a novel spatial/object discrimination task. Behav Brain Res. 2001;122:201–7.
6. Northam EA, Anderson PJ, Jacobs R, Hughes M, Warne GL, Werther GA. Neuropsychological profiles of children with type 1 diabetes 6 years after disease onset. Diabetes Care. 2001;24:1541–6.
7. Wessels AM, Rombouts SA, Remijnse PL, Boom Y, Scheltens P, Barkhof F, et al. Cognitive performance in type 1 diabetes patients is associated with cerebral white matter volume. Diabetologia. 2007;20:1763–9.
8. Weinger K, Jacobson AM, Musen G, Lyoo IK, Ryan CM, Jimerson DC, et al. The effects of type 1 diabetes on cerebral white matter. Diabetologia. 2008;51:417–25.
9. Xu Y, Yan J, Zhou P, Li J, Gao H, Xia Y, et al. Neurotransmitter receptors and cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Prog Neurobiol. 2012;97(1):1–13.
10. Bymaster FP, Heath I, Hendrix JC, Shannon HE. Cooperative behavioral and neurochemical activities of cholinergic antagonists in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993;267:16–24.
11. Oda Y, Nakanishi I. The distribution of cholinergic neurons in the human central nervous system. Histol Histopathol. 2000;15(3):825–34.
12. Yamamoto N, Philbeck JW, Woods AJ, Gajewski DA, Arthur JC, Potolicchio SJ Jr, et al. Medial temporal lobe roles in human path integration. PLoS One. 2014;9(5):e96583.
13. Provost JS, Hanganu A, Monchi O. Neuroimaging studies of the striatum in cognition Part I: healthy individuals. Front Syst Neurosci. 2015;9:140.
14. Fahim MA, Hasan MY, Alshuaib WB. Cadmium modulates diabetes-induced alterations in murine neuromuscular junction. Endocr Res. 2000;26:205–17.
15. Lakhman SS, Kaur G. Effect of alloxan-induced diabetes on acetylcholinesterase activity from discrete areas of rat brain. Neurochem Int. 1994;24(2):159–63.
16. Hegazy A, Azeem AA, Shahy E, El-Sayed E. Comparative study of cholinergic and oxidative stress biomarkers in brains of diabetic and hypercholesterolemic rats. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2016;35(3):251–8.
17. Singh C, Bortolato M, Bali N, Godar SC, Scott AL, Chen K, et al. Cognitive abnormalities and hippocampal alterations in monoamine oxidase A and B knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110(31):12816–21.
18. Lakhman SS, Kaur G. Effect of experimental diabetes on monoamine oxidase activity from discrete areas of rat brain: relationship with diabetes associated reproductive failure. Mol Cell Biochem. 1997;177(1-2):15–20.
19. Mahmood KT, Mugal T, Haq IU. Moringa oleifera: A natural gift – A review. J Pharm Sci Res. 2010;2:775–81.
20. Peixoto JR, Silva GC, Costa RA, de Sousa FJ, Vieira GH, Filho AA, et al. In vitro antibacterial effect of aqueous and ethanolic Moringa leaf extracts. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011;4:201–4.
21. Divi SM, Bellamkonda R, Dasireddy SK. Evaluation of antidiabetic and antihyperlipedemic potential of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera in fructose fed insulin resistant and STZ induced diabetic wistar rats: a comparative study. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2012;5:67–72.
22. Jung IL. Soluble extract from Moringa oleifera leaves with a new anticancer activity. PLoS One. 2014;9:1–10.
23. Grover JK, Yadav S, Vats V. Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;81:81–100.
24. Atawodi SE, Atawodi JC, Idakwo GA, Pfundstein B, Haubner R, Wurtele G, et al. Evaluation of the polyphenol content and antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks of Moringa oleifera Lam. J Med Food. 2010;13:710–6.
25. Ganguly R, Guha D. Alteration of brain monoamines & EEG wave pattern in rat model of Alzheimer's disease & protection by Moringa oleifera. Indian J Med Res. 2008;128(6):744–51.
26. Hannan MA, Kang JY, Mohibbullah M, Hong YK, Lee H, Choi JS, et al. Moringa oleifera with promising neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth promoting potentials. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;152:142–50.
27. Hawiset T, Sriraksa N, Wattanathorn J, Khongrum J. The antioxidative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves in the higher brain regions of diabetic rats J Physiol Biomed Sci. 2018;31(1):5–11.
28. Ellman GL, Courtney KD, Andres V Jr, Feather-Stone RM. A new and rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity. Biochem Pharmacol. 1961;7:88–95.
29. Wattanathorn J, Kirisattayakul W, Suriharn B, Lertrat K. Functional drink containing the extracts of purple corn cob and pandan leaves, the novel cognitive enhancer, increases spatial memory and hippocampal neuron density through the improvement of extracellular signal regulated protein kinase expression, cholinergic function, and oxidative status in ovariectomized rats. Rejuvenation Res. 2018;21(5):431–41.
30. Biessels GJ, Bravenboer B, Gispen WH. Glucose, insulin and the brain: modulation of cognition and synaptic plasticity in health and disease: a preface. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;490:1–4.
31. Biessels GJ, Cristino NA, Rutten GJ, Hamers FP, Erkelens DW, Gispen WH. Neurophysiological changes in the central and peripheral nervous system of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Course of development and effects of insulin treatment. Brain. 1999;122(Pt 4):757–68.
32. Tian Z, Wang J, Xu M, Wang Y, Zhang M, Zhou Y. Resveratrol improves cognitive impairment by regulating apoptosis and synaptic plasticity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016;40:1670–77.
33. Bird CM, Burgess N. The hippocampus and memory: insights from spatial processing. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2008;9(3):182–94.
34. Augustinack JC, Van Der Kouwe AJ, Salat DH, Benner T, Stevens AA, Annese J, et al. H.M.’s contributions to neuroscience: a review and autopsy studies. Hippocampus. 2014;24:1267–86.
35. Teles-Grilo Ruivo LM, Mellor JR. Cholinergic modulation of hippocampal network function. Front Synaptic Neurosci. 2013;5:2.
36. Sutalangka C, Wattanathorn J, Muchimapura S, Thukham-mee W. Moringa oleifera mitigates memory impairment and neurodegeneration in animal model of age-related dementia. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013:1–9.
37. Sharayu R, Asmita M. Screening of Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors by Moringa olifera. Int J Life Sci. 2016;4(2):302–5.
38. Prabsattroo T, Wattanathorn J, Iamsaard S, Somsapt P, Sritragool O, Thukhummee W, et al. Moringa oleifera extract enhances sexual performance in stressed rats. J Zhejiang UnivSci B. 2015;16(3):179–90.
39. Emory H, Mizrahi N. Monoamine oxidase inhibition in a patient with type 1 diabetes and depression. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2016;10(5):1203–4.
40. Bortolato M, Chen K, Shih JC. Monoamine oxidase inactivation: from pathophysiology to therapeutics. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2008;60(13-14):1527–33.
How to Cite
Sriraksa N. Effects of Moringa oleifera on the Acetylcholinesterase and Monoamine Oxidase Activities in the Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Brains. Naresuan Phayao Journal [Internet]. 27Dec.2019 [cited 21Jan.2020];12(3):13-2. Available from: https://www.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/journalup/article/view/188720
Research articles